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I need to finish those 10 questions. At least I need to get 9 of 10...

I need to finish those 10 questions. At least I need to get 9 of 10 correct answers. Please help.

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivismviews knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Constructivist philosophers assert that knowledge is made by humans themselves. Knowledge is not "out there" in some external reality separate from us. It is we humans who create the content in disciplines such as math and biology. That knowledge would not exist without people making it.

 

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

I accept the point that whenever learning occurs, some medium or mix of media must be present to deliver instruction. However, if learning occurs as a result of exposure to any media, the learning is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. Method is the inclusion of one of a number of possible representations of a cognitive process or strategy that is necessary for learning but which students cannot or will not provide for themselves.

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning.  Educational technology research and development42(2), 21-29.

 

Media do not influence learning. Learning takes place because of the instructional methods represented in the medium which are used, rather than medium itself. It is the instructional methods which influence learning.

 

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning.  Educational technology research and development42(2), 21-29.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners agree that educational research is often divorced from the problems and issues of everyday practice--a split that creates a need for new research approaches that speak directly to problems of practice (National Research Council [NRC], 2002) and that lead to the development of "usable knowledge" (Lagemann, 2002). Design-based research (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) is an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools. We argue that design-based research can help create and extend knowledge about developing, enacting, and sustaining innovative learning environments.

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.

A decade later, researchers interested in studying learning in naturalistic settings (inspired by Brown's approach) began a concerted effort to define the standards and argue the legitimacy of this type of research through design. For example, the Design-Based Research Collective defined design-based research (DBR) as "an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context, through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools" (DBRC, 2003, p. 5).

 

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivismviews knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists argue that human knowledge, such as what is known in the fields of mathematics or sociology, as well as knowledge about learning itself, is a human construction (Gredler, 2001).



References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Use of mainstream games in schools remains rare, and is unlikely to be integrated into the curriculum. Reasons for this include:

  • it is difficult for teachers to identify quickly how a particular game is relevant to some component of the statutory curriculum, as well as the accuracy and appropriateness of the content within the game
  • the difficulty in persuading other school stakeholders as to the potential/actual educational benefits of computer games
  • the lack of time available to teachers to familiarize themselves with the game, and methodsof producing the best results from its use
  • the amount of irrelevant content or functionality in a game which could not be removed or ignored, thus wasting valuable lesson time.

References:
Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning: A report forNESTA Futurelab. Retrieved from http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/19/04/53/PDF/kirriemuir-j-2004-r8.pdf

Kirriemuir and McFarlane (2004) reported that the use of mainstream games in K-12 education is and will probably remain rare for several reasons. Evaluating a game's relevance to curriculum and accuracy of content is difficult and time-consuming. They further assert that a mainstream game which is applicable to curriculum standards will likely include irrelevant content. Finally, most teachers are not familiar with methods for using mainstream games in instruction.

 

 

 

References:
Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning: A report forNESTA Futurelab. Retrieved from http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/19/04/53/PDF/kirriemuir-j-2004-r8.pdf


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Analysis of patterns in time (APT) is a method for gathering information about observable phenomena such that probabilities of temporal patterns of events can be estimated empirically. If appropriate sampling strategies are employed, temporal patterns can be predicted from APT results. Finally, APT is compared to the linear models approach and event history analysis. The major difference is that in APT there is no mathematical model assumed to characterize relations among variables. In APT the model is the temporal pattern being investigated.

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

APT is an empirical approach to observing and coding phenomena by using mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories within multiple classifications (Frick, 1990). Once these data have been collected, researchers specify APT queries to calculate the probability of joint and/or sequential patterns of interest. In effect, researchers create measures of temporal patterns by counting the occurrences of these coded patterns. According to Frick, Analysis of Patterns in Time is different from the linear models approach of measuring variables separately and using statistics to analyze their relations.

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else - perhaps the director of training - to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will "solve the problem." And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem....  The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When top-down major changes are initiated in organizations, people tend to assume that training is needed to help members of the organization change their behavior.  While training might help, if people in the organization lack commitment to accept the changes, they still might not do what management wants them to do.

 


References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology(p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated - and interesting - is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature

Frick (1991) claims that systems, including both business systems, and educational systems, are actually very simple. The main idea is that systems "have parts that fit together to make a whole" (The nature of systems in education section, para. 1). What is further interesting to Frick is how those parts are connected together.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration. When learners are required to find a new portrayal of the information that has been presented, they are required to process the information at a deeper level in order to identify and demonstrate this new portrayal. When they are required to demonstrate their new portrayals to one another, this provides additional portrayals of the information being taught, thus increasing the richness of the instruction.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

 

In order to make instruction more effective, learners should be required to find additional portrayals of the information which have been presented by the instructor. Learners are expected to then demonstrate their portrayals to one another. Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration.

 

 

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

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