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Introduction Telesurgery also known as remote surgery or surgery at a distance, is a specialized area of Telemedicine. The process allows a surgeon...

I have a research report on telesurgery that needs fine-tuning/paraphrasing (grammar errors etc. ) and adding two more sections (Potential Business Value and a Reflections part of the topic). Thanks.

IntroducTon Telesurgery also known as remote surgery or surgery at a distance, is a specialized area of Telemedicine. The process allows a surgeon to remotely perform surgical procedures on a pa±ent located somewhere other than the surgeon’s loca±on. Telesurgery u±lizes robo±cs element, management informa±on systems technology, and communica±on technology combined. Telesurgery, can also be described as robo±c mechanism under direct human supervision rather than robots that can carry out ac±vi±es autonomously. It is an alterna±ve to conven±onal surgery that is named ‘minimally invasive’ surgery or ‘keyhole’ surgery. According surgical experts, minimally invasive surgery uses only small access areas known as ‘ports” so that the physical and emo±onal disturbances associated with conven±onal surgery are minimized. The surgeon’s view is limited to images obtained from endoscopes which is the use of op±cal Fber probe, for display on a video monitor. (April, 2017). Con±nuous enhancement in Telesurgery technology has witnessed many good results in the Feld of healthcare and its opera±onal prac±ces. The technology has been welcomed by surgeons who are contented to u±lize it in di²erent aspects in their Felds, taking advantage of the various surgical equipment and tools brought by the technology. According to research, there are signiFcant future prospects in the technology’s ability to care for pa±ents while ensuring proper monitoring and accurate results. (Sept., 2005) This is speciFcally true today because of recent advancement such as in Augmented Reality that have forever changed how we view things and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) a technology aimed for opera±onal e³ciency that we have seen evolving. ´rom the applica±on perspec±ve, Telesurgery empowers doctors to obtrusively treat pa±ents geographically isolated from themselves. Moment and boundless remote access to the therapeu±c site implies that the doctor is really equipped for performing opera±ons through robots and other teleoperated gadgets. Background Currently, the most advanced surgical equipment available for use in Telesurgery opera±ons are the Zeus robo±c systems and the da Vinci Surgical systems. Robo±cs entered the opera±ng room in 1985 with the PUMA 200 industrial robots which was adapted for ‘’CT-guided brain biopsy’’. In 1988, however, another equipment called the PROBOT which is an ultrasound- guided system, was used to perform prosta±c resec±ons. The Frst commercially available medical robot came in 1992 with a robot named ROBODOC by a company called Integrated Surgical Systems located in Sacramento, California. This system was designed and approved to precisely mill the femur for hip replacements. This Frst genera±on of surgical robots was
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notable for performing image-guided precision tasks but was limited by the need for preoperaTve planning and basic computer interfaces. (May, 2017). Personal Computer helped surgery debuted in the mid-1990s; it was the following stride toward the objecTve of remote surgery. ±he ZEUS Surgical System, created in 1995 by Computer MoTon, Inc., was aFrmed by the ²ederal Drug AdministraTon (²DA) in 2002 for use when all is said in done and laparoscopic surgeries with the paTent and specialist in the same room. ZEUS contains three table-mounted automated arms - one holding the AESOP endoscope posiToner, which gives a perspecTve of the inside working ³eld, the others holding surgical instruments. ±he mechanical arms are controlled by the specialist, who sits at a console a few meters away. PercepTon of the working ³eld is controlled by voice enactment, while the mechanical arms are controlled by developments of the specialist's hands and wrists. ±oday, the conTnuous emergence in technological innovaTon has made many new changes and are further advancing accessible surgical treatments through other possible surgery advances. ±echnological innovaTon like ±elesurgery has helped reduce the limitaTon of laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. ±elesurgery, is therefore a revoluTonizing implicaTon to minimally inversive surgery. PotenTal Benefts ±elesurgery, treatments are quite be´er at performing simple and safer surgery procedures comparing to tradiTonal surgery pracTces. ²or instance, on September 7, 2001, OperaTon Lindbergh became the ³rst completed remote surgery on a human paTent performed over 4000 miles away. ±hough the allocated cost were over a million dollar, the enTre operaTon lasted 45 minutes. It was said that the enTre number of people involved in the operaTon was 40 people presented in categories composed of a Medical team, ±elecom engineers, and RoboTc system specialists. ±he paTent was in an operaTng room in Strasbourg, ²rance while the surgeon, Professor Jacques Marescaux and his team were in New York city. ±he point here is, though the cost appears to be very expensive, a person’s life was saved with the ³rst technology of its kind and technologies are always expense when iniTally entering markets. In Canada, the ³rst hospital-to-hospital teleroboTc-assisted surgery took place on ²ebruary 28, 2003. Here the main surgeon, Dr. Mehran Anvari was in a hospital in Hamilton, Canada assisted surgeons in another hospital North Bay, Canada. ±he distance was 400 kilometers or about a few 100 miles away. ±his procedure also went successful, saving Tme, cost, and most importantly, a life that was at stake. In the light of the above, we can see how the technology can bring about posiTve change in the health care delivery system. It can create a way for our naTon’s wounded soldiers to no longer feel the need to be transported thousands of miles away for treatment when ±elesurgery can deliver. ±he US Army for instance, has dependably been occupied with ±elesurgery for the
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Research Report.doc

Running head: RESEARCH REPORT: TELESURGERY Research Report: Telesurgery
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Institution 1 RESEARCH REPORT: TELESURGERY 2 Research Report: Telesurgery
Telesurgery is also known as remote surgery or...

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