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Track 1 Final Assignment Template
1.1 Research Topic
Interventions to reduce prejudice within adolescent social groups is the topic to be studied. As we know[DW1] adolescents experience prejudice and this can impact self esteem, emotional health, and school success (Benner & Crosnoe, 2014) Within[DW2] their social environments adolescents develop norms and form in social groups to cope. Social environments become breeding grounds for further prejudice, perpetuating a cycle that reduces the success of adolescents (Benner & Crosnoe, 2014). Thus, interventions are needed.
The research topic is appropriate for General Psychology because general psychology focuses on the integration of many perspectives and is grounded in psychological theory. Thus, a study of adolescence prejudice and a study of successful interventions to reduce prejudice and connected to psychological theory fits within the specialization. The fundamental goal of this study is to examine what interventions will be successful to reduce prejudice and enhance respect and inclusion within a community.
1.2 Research Problem
The research literature on prejudice within adolescent social groups indicates that we know that young adult groups experience exclusions. These exclusions are based on cultural dynamics and group membership (Rutland, 2015), as we know that during the adolescent stage (Erikson 1963) presents adolescents, psychosocial needs are always conflicting with the needs of society. We know that adolescents make decisions based on experiences of exclusion[DW4] (Rutland 2015). Moreover, the literature shows that experience of prejudice affect their[DW5] perceptions and social environments[DW6] ( ). , But we do not know how teens or young adults perceive that they are affected by the use of interventions to reduce prejudice.
2.1 Research Problem Background
The body of the existing literature is about Prejudice within Adolescent Social Groups: Intervention strategies and approaches to reduce prejudice within adolescence peer groups. There have been many studies conducted on the risk for adolescence exclusions and how the adverse outcome is usually associated with social problems (Killen, 2015, pg. 121). According to Garcia Coll et al. (1996, p. 1899), "prejudice is "the preconceived judgment or opinion made about a person or a group based on social position variables, and an unreasonable predilection or objection usually accompany it." Perceived prejudice, therefore, refers to the degree to which such judgments and opinions are sensed in others" (Aprile D. Benner and Robert Crosnoe, 2014, p. 173). As we know, prejudice can take on many frameworks during childhood, and it also depends on one's beliefs regarding adolescents' competence to manage their affairs (Marilyn Jacobs-Quadrel, 1993, p. 103). There are techniques for tempting teen with the use of activities and programming (Papell, 2015) through group services creating an adolescence sociocultural environment.
As we know (Erikson 1963) had identity diffusion (ego) and borderline personality hand in hand (Josselson, 2013, p. 622) as relatable to insecure early attachment. Over the past few years, we have attempted to fill some of these gaps, typically observing small differences, on the order of those in this invulnerability study (Marilyn Jacobs-Quadrel, 1993, p. 103). While psychotherapy can be used as an intervention method to help build upon self, which can help adolescents to build their identity (Josselson, 2013, p. 623). Identity is crucial for adolescents when it comes to stereotypes and prejudice attitudes, so the time for proper interventions is before biases are wholly formed in adulthood (Killen, 2015, p. 122). Beyth-Marom et al. (in press) asked adolescents and adults to produce possible consequences of taking (or avoiding) risky behaviors (Marilyn Jacobs-Quadrel, 1993, p. 103). Other studies have shown teens and young adults who "share, help them develop more power to control their peers. However, they become more popular than those who do not share. While growing peer involvement will spill-over to other activities in their lives with consequences of this spill-over effect depends on the kind of company they keep" (Gu3, 2017, p. 642).
We need to know how demographic denotations affect race, ethnicity, racial identity and ethnic identity (Quintana, 2007) and what are the outcomes when used in counseling research. Responses, where racial, ethnic identity, cultural behaviors, and language usage included behavioral measures for adolescents' affiliation, will have explicit in-group attitudes (Corenblum, 2014) with a conﬁrmatory factor analysis revealed factors that include accurate responses to this analysis. Now we need to examine this analysis due to unregulated influences of perceived social consensus information on the weight prejudice across development (Patel, 2013). After a systematic study was conducted on developmental interventions to reduce prejudice (Frances E. Abouda, 2012), the effects showed the reducing ethnic prejudice and discrimination (Frances E. Abouda, 2012) within adolescence social groups by using experimental manipulation and self-selection. Although there are studies that exist in conclusion findings are mixed and sufficiently loud, but future research is still required.
3.1 Theoretical Foundations
The primary theoretical basis for the study is by (Erik Erikson 1963) Psychosocial Development Stages Theory which examines the human developmental growth stages. Within this study, the original theory presented is a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial developmental stages from infant to adult. Within each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that is either positive or negative, and it falls on the individual development of personality.
The theory is valid because it focusses on the role of culture and society and the conflicts that take place within the human ego. Also, this theory is related to the study because it has to do with successfully resolving a human crisis that is distinctively based on social nature- establishing trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society and helping the next future generations. "The most frequently cited theoretical basis for adolescent invulnerability is probably Elkind's (1967) concept of adolescent egocentrism, which postulates two phenomena occurring when adolescents try to conceptualize the thoughts of others:
(a) the imaginary audience, in which adolescents fail to differentiate others' thoughts from their own (seeing themselves as being as central to others' thinking as they are to their own), and
(b) the personal fable, in which adolescents over differentiate their thoughts and feelings from those of others" (Marilyn Jacobs-Quadrel, 1993).
The theory is relevant to the topic:
· Because personality development would assist with the new interventional theory and strategies that are likely to improve the original theory.
· Because it can help with understanding future lifespan for human development
· Be more adaptive and create new experimented tools to help with adolescence perceptions
· To help develop the epigenetic principle within the Identity vs. Role stage within the Psychosocial development theory by (Erik Erikson, 1963)
3.2 Contributions to Theory
Describe how your study will contribute to theory in your field by meeting one or more of these four criteria.
1. The new study will generate new intervention methods and strategies through revision (Frances E. Abouda, 2012).
2. The study does refine and add to an existing theory with a wide range of integrated life skills and tools to help adolescence function together as a whole (Killen, 2015).
3. The study does test to confirm the psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial developmental theory that psychological needs are always in conflict with the needs of society (Josselson, 2013).
4. The study expands and tell us that adolescence social group interventions have evidence that ego stages are created through crisis and intervention strategies have proven to be helpful, but we need to if the intervention program strategies should be implemented in early stages or in the actual forming of adolescence personality developmental stages (Frances E. Abouda, 2012, p. 308).
3.3 Theoretical Implications
The theoretical implications that could be added to Psychosocial Development Stages Theory by Erik Erikson/ Human stages of development could implement a strategy. The stage of adolescence personality development can be used to help support the ego stage within Psychosocial Development Stage Identity vs. Role / Fidelity because within this stage adolescence are usually confused and suffer from identity crisis. The Theoretical implications that added for support of theory building of Psychosocial Development Stages are the Behaviorist School of Thought in Psychology by John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner/ Environment learning. Learning environments are evaluated and implemented with proper studies showing that young adults within a controlled environment who were giving verbal format tasks and formal visuospatial tasks learned better from the use of both simultaneously but learned more from visual input than verbal input when used separately (Chiara Meneghetti, 2016, p. 261).
With the results of Behaviorism shows values on objectivity and insistence on pure observation of a study on mental events (Hergenhahn B.R. & Henley, 2014) can show support to Psychosocial Development with the use of control of behavior being the goal with the study of mental events that go hand in hand with the ego crisis. The use of The Psychoanalytic School of Thought by Sigmund Freud / Ego stages/ complex human behaviors can also show support for theoretical implications. In fact, due to prejudice in young adults create unconscious factors, along with other motives are essential to the degree they are brought to conscious awareness and integrated with the ego/self (Capella University, 2017). The theoretical implications presented will be used to analyze and form intervention strategies within the framework of the conceptualized study and quantitative data.
3.4 Practical Implications
The practical implications that may result from this research that can be used by any or all of the following stakeholders: the population studied, professionals for whom this topic pertains, and the broader community itself. The principles are in continuous refinement where human development observations and conclusions can be used to implement strategies to make human life better within the next generations. Development overlapping will be integrated form the use of grounded theory for inductive help that will arise from the data to create intervention strategies to help adolescents and young adults with social group prejudices. The validity of challenging social science theories where positive youth development and principles will help (Coughlan & Welsh-Breetzke, 2002) to focus on adolescence groups and not just individuals when it comes to coping skills, identity, ego, and self through the way communication processed in cultural dynamics within diverse communities.
4.3 Ethical Considerations
The ethical considerations are given the sample, population and topic could bring in biases, the age groups could be oversample and have self-intentions which could lead to fabrication and falsifying data. Ethical considerations could be critical when it comes to collaborating with the department of juvenile justice and groups home research, due to fundamental guidelines, policies, and codes when the research is about human subjects. There may be ethical considerations for voluntary and consensual information and participation due to conducting research. The proposed population or research topic in not greater than minimal risk but it could be depending on the results when considering human rights, compliance with group home organizational data and conflicts of interest.