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Item 1 Original Source Material Science classrooms offer at least five ways to individualize and to enhance students learning using games and...

Item 1

Original Source Material

Science classrooms offer at least five ways to individualize and to enhance students learning using games and simulations beyond what is possible in informal settings. First, teachers can assign students to teams based on detailed knowledge of learners' intellectual and psychosocial characteristics. Second, in contrast to relatively unguided learning in contexts outside of school, science teachers can alter their classroom instruction and support based on the feedback educational games and simulations provide. Third, science games and simulations are adaptable to students with special needs, allowing them to be mainstreamed in science classrooms. Fourth, educational games and simulations can prepare students to take full advantage of real world field trips in science classrooms. Fifth, teachers through their knowledge of students can relate virtual experiences in science games and simulations to what is happening in the real world or in their personal lives.

References:

Dede, C. (2009). Learning context: Gaming, gaming simulations, and science learning in the classroom. Paper commissioned for the National Research Council Workshop on Gaming and Simulations, October 6-7, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/

bose/Dede_Gaming_CommissionedPaper. pdf


Student Version


According to Dede (2009), different games can be assigned and used based on students' characteristics. Information about student performance when playing games can help science teachers plan subsequent classroom activities. Games also can be utilized for students with special needs, which can be selected to match their ability levels.


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Item 2

Original Source Material

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else - perhaps the director of training - to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will "solve the problem." And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.... The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:

Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.


Student Version


When major changes are initiated in organizations, "... there is often the implicit assumption that training will 'solve the problem.' And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem." (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

 




References:

Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.


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Original Source Material

While solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse rather than build it, the pattern analysis shows that the anonymous condition seemed to provide a safe explorative space for learners to try out more reasons for their multiple solutionsTeachers will rarely give anonymous feedback, but the experience of giving anonymous feedback may open a social space where learners can try out the reasons for their suggestions.

References:

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Student Version


Teachers don't often provide feedback anonymously, but the ability to provide feedback anonymously may create a context where the rationale associated with specific suggestions can be more safely explored (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010). However, we cannot assume that all anonymous online spaces will serve as safe social spaces.

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Item 4

Original Source Material

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated - and interesting - is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:

Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Student Version


The fundamental idea of systems, such as corporations and schools, is actually very simple. Each system has components which interact. What is important is how those components are connected together.

 

References:

Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

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Item 5

Original Source Material

While solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse rather than build it, the pattern analysis shows that the anonymous condition seemed to provide a safe explorative space for learners to try out more reasons for their multiple solutions. Teachers will rarely give anonymous feedback, but the experience of giving anonymous feedback may open a social space where learners can try out the reasons for their suggestions.

References:

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Student Version


In their study of anonymity in an online peer feedback activity, the authors found that, under conditions of anonymity, learners seemed more inclined to provide reasons to back up their suggestions (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010). Getting both suggestions and the reasons for the suggestions would be welcome in feedback I receive from peers or my instructors. Seeing the reasons would help me know that the suggestions have been thought through (even if I don't always agree with them).

References:

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

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Item 6

Original Source Material

Suppose you study a group of successful companies and you find that they emphasize customer focus, or quality improvement, or empowerment; how do you know that you haven't merely discovered the management practice equivalent of having buildings? How do you know that you've discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies? You don't know. You can't know--not unless you have a control set, a comparison group.

References:

Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

Student Version

One has to ask oneself how you know that you've discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies? Otherwise, you can fall into a trap that is the same as identifying "the management practice equivalent of having buildings" (Collins & Porras, 2002, p. 14).

 

References:

Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

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Item 7

Original Source Material

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Student Version


A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

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Item 8

Original Source Material

While solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse rather than build it, the pattern analysis shows that the anonymous condition seemed to provide a safe explorative space for learners to try out more reasons for their multiple solutions. Teachers will rarely give anonymous feedback, but the experience of giving anonymous feedback may open a social space where learners can try out the reasons for their suggestions.

References:

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Student Version

It is clear that "solitary negative reactions or unjustified suggestions for change have the potential to dissipate discourse" (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 103). However, anonymity may give learners a context in which they can try providing solutions that are more thoroughly supported by an accompanying rational (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010). Clearly, the positive and negative consequences that anonymity has on peer feedback must be considered.

References:

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers' comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

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Item 9

Original Source Material

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Student Version

Constructivist philosophers assert that knowledge is made by humans themselves. Knowledge is not "out there" in some external reality separate from us. It is we humans who create the content in disciplines such as math and biology. That knowledge would not exist without people making it.

 

References:

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

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Item 10

Original Source Material

Memory is given a prominent role in the learning process. Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful manner. Teachers/designers are responsible for assisting learners in organizing that information in some optimal way. Designers use techniques such as advance organizers, analogies, hierarchical relationships, and matrices to help learners relate new information to prior knowledge. Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information from memory because of interference, memory loss, or missing or inadequate cues needed to access information.

References:

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly6(4), 50-71.

Student Version

Memory takes an important role in the process of learning. Learning occurs when information is integrated into student memory in a structured and meaningful way. Teachers can help students learn by arranging that information in useful ways. Advance organizers could be used to assist learners to connect existing knowledge to new knowledge.

 

References:

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly6(4), 50-71.


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