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In "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell describes the qualities of modern English prose.

He describes it in all of the following ways except ___________.


  • As a mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence 
  • As a pretentious, Latinized style
  • As ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish
  • As a lack of writing rules in place 


Select the statement that is the best example of using ethos as a rhetorical appeal.

  • "Students aspire to be individuals and they should have the right to wear what they want to wear to school."
  • "I live across the street from an elementary school and I think wearing uniforms improves student behavior."
  • "I've written a book that proves wearing school uniforms correlates strongly with high student achievement." 
  • "Students from low-income families suffer socially if their clothing differs significantly from that of their peers."


Sally is writing an argumentative essay in favor of abolishing the death penalty in the United States. She wants to refute the counterargument that the threat of the death penalty prevents people from committing crimes.

Choose the best response to the counterargument.


  • There is no difference in the crime rate between states that have the death penalty and states that do not. 
  • This is one of the more ignorant counterarguments because it clearly isn't true.
  • The only thing the death penalty deters is the life of the person who committed that particular crime.
  • It's impossible to prove something that can't be measured.


Choose the most clear and focused thesis statement for an argumentative research essay.

  • There is always some new fad diet in the news.
  • Fad diets are dangerous.
  • Low-carbohydrate diets may be harmful for some people.
  • A gluten-free diet avoids foods that contain wheat, barley, and rye.


Marsha is writing a research essay on early childhood education. She has created a working thesis, and now she is thinking about how and where to find sources of information. She makes a list of effective search strategies.

Choose the action that is NOT an effective way to locate source materials.

  • Vary search terms to get a variety of results.
  • Use smart online search strategies and start early.
  • Search the online catalogs of both public and academic libraries.
  • Limit sources to academic journals and published books.


Which sentence is an example of a counterargument?

  • As a concerned parent, I am writing to the school board to question its adoption of this textbook.
  • Most people approve of the new curfew, but critics argue that it hampers their ability to move freely after 10:00 PM.
  • I never shop in that store; they have the rudest salespeople, and once they tried to charge me twice for a sweater.
  • I realized my mistake only after I had handed the paperwork to the wrong person.



Wayne is writing an essay and is using the Classical argument model because his primary goal is to persuade his reader. He's written an introduction with necessary background information and is working on the body of his essay.

Which of the following is NOT a component of the Classical model?

  • A clear and forceful claim
  • A discussion of points of agreement or consensus 
  • A conclusion that includes a call to action
  • An addressing and refutation of counterarguments


Select the true statement about using your prewriting during drafting. 

  • Doing prewriting activities, such as creating an outline, bibliography, or research notes, guarantee that your sources will be effectively incorporated into your draft.
  • Once you add a source to your bibliography during prewriting, you are required to incorporate it into your essay during drafting. 
  • Prewriting activities can help you to organize your ideas and sources, which can help make the drafting process more efficient. 
  • Advanced writers rarely use prewriting activities since these types of activities are primarily useful for beginner writers. 

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