Question
Answered

Hello, I need help to review my essay. Please give me feedbacks and...

Hello,


I need help to review my essay. Please give me feedbacks and notes to improve it.



The Underground Railroad Through the African American criticisms


"History has shown us that courage can be contagious, and hope can take on a life of its own." (Michelle Obama) As the race in America consumes national debate, we start to see an explosion of novels that address the subject. "The Underground Railroad" by the author Colson Whitehead adopts escape tactics to investigate American racial trauma's legacy and use the underground railroad institution as a vessel for his speculative narrative. Whitehead's The Underground Railroad was awarded the National Book Award for fiction and selected as one of Oprah Winfrey's book club. Colson Whitehead writes of slavery in the fictitious book, The Underground Railroad, and it is an unfortunate and dishonorable tale. To explain the historical and current concerns of racism in America, he includes racial injustice against African Americans. Cora, the heroine, and other slaves from the text are included as examples of mistreatment and oppression committed by whites to African Americans. Throughout the novel, Whitehead's decision to make the underground a literal train is very interesting since each stop on the track symbolizes many distinct problems that Whitehead needs to discuss. The underground railroad as a literal train, Whitehead's metaphor acts as a track, and each stop that Cora ends up symbolizes a dilemma as well as a route to a better future. I intend to shed some light on Whitehead's novel and its protagonists' various points of view by practicing Critical Racial theory, especially African American criticisms.

The concept of the social construction of race is the core tenant of Critical Race Theory: "How can we define race as a matter of physical features when the physical differences between light-skinned blacks and dark-skinned whites, ... Yet in 1790, ... until 1952. So over the course of those 162 years of racial restrictions, the US judicial system frequently had to decide, among its many applicants for citizenship, which men were white and which weren't. ... To complicate matters, over the course of our history some groups have "become" white, so to speak. For instance, during our nation's early years, Italian, Jewish, and Irish people were considered nonwhite, that is, of the same status as African Americans (Delgado and Stefancic 76-77)." (Tyson 355) This explains that many racial beliefs are only created by a particular group who has the power and authority in a particular society, where they distinguish people and things according to their thoughts, which will later transfer to other people and the next generations. However, these thoughts are not constant, and with generations, they change. Whitehead's decision to spend the whole first chapter talking about Cora's grandma at first, a woman who does not otherwise appear much in the story, can seem unusual. Nevertheless, this character offers relevant detail that significantly influences the story of Cora. This detail reveals the significance as the subject in the whole novel of family heritage. Cora's own identity, in certain respects, is inseparable from that of her mother and grandmother. She said that she was "it was her grandmother talking," when she declines to flee Caesar; when she approved the appeal, "it was her mother talking" (Whitehead 8). In both cases, Cora's decision was inseparable from the legacies of those women who had followed it. Any part of Cora's personality, the way she sees herself to be African, slave, refugee, autonomous, alone, can be traced to her ancestors and their thoughts and beliefs. In fact, her grandmother's behavior and thoughts result from the physical and emotional transformations, Ajarry conducts most of her time in. She's sold over and over again, moving from place to place, lost much of the ones she loves. Therefore, for Ajarry, the thought of traveling again does not appear like freedom; the logic of its imprisonment is movement and confusion. A spot to call yourself, while it's only a little patch of property, is better than Ajarry's alternative: death or null.

After Cora's moving to South Carolina, She faced racial discrimination that is somehow manipulated to appear normal to African Americans. One of these hidden and disguised discriminations is interest convergence which Derrick Bell uses this term to explain that racism is common in our country because it often converges, or overlaps, with interest - with something needed or desired - of a white individual or group (Brown v. Board of Education 20-29).  For example, according to Christian E. Weller, in his article "African Americans Face Systematic Obstacles to Getting Good Jobs" African American employees also face more challenges than their white peers to having a job, never mind a decent one. Systematically, they appear to experience higher unemployment rates, fewer work openings, reduced wages, poorer compensation, and greater job insecurity. These enduring disparities represent systemic obstacles to better employment, such as outright discrimination and occupational segregation against African American employees. In the novel The Underground Railroad, this form of disguised discrimination, liberalism,  makes it easy to treat African Americans like artifacts. In three of the museum exhibits, Cora acts as an actress there: one depicting life previous to imprisonment in "Darkest Africa," one portraying life on a slave ship, and one portraying the life of a plantation slave. In each of the exhibits, Cora and two other women take turns mimicking everyday activities as observed by a constant stream of white museum guests. (Whitehead 125). Cora hated working there, especially in playing the role of a slave, but she could not quite despite the racist looks that she got from the white audience, which exemplifies this dilemma. Even if the motivations of the museum viewers were absolutely generous, there is still something disturbing about the notion that Cora was reduced to a piece of scenery for white people to look at. Thus, the choice of Cora to start looking back at the white guests of the museum empowers her because it means that she isn't merely an item to gaze at anymore. She's a subject of her own agency, and she's capable of looking too. Not to mention that in the exhibition, no white people serve as actors: in the slave ship show, even the white sailor is a dummy according to the novel "They teased Skipper John, as they nicknamed the dummy sailor," (Whitehead 111) also they made Cora talk with the dummy "She had lately taken to making conversation with the dummy to add some theater for the audience." (Whitehead 116) This act is diminishing the value of Cora as a free human being and humiliates her in such way to stay always looked like a lower creature because she is African American person comparing to a white person and enhance the feeling of superiority to white individuals by implanting the idea of a white person cannot work equally with an African American person at the same job.

Ethel is yet another case of the worthlessness of passive white "liberalism," She is the wife of Martin, who saved Cora from the underground railroad station in North Carolina; she sees herself as someone kind to people of African descent. At her infantile age, she not only played with a black girl called Jasmine but even wished to be a missionary in Africa. Also, her story with Cora and Jasmine exemplifies differential racialization: "Differential racialization refers to the fact that "the dominant society racializes [defines the racial characteristics of] different minority groups [in different ways] at different times, in response to [its] shifting needs" (Delgado and Stefancic 8). Jasmine's mother was a slave owned by Ethel's family, and Jasmine was Ethel's childhood playmate. Her father prevented her from playing with Jasmine when Ethel turned eight years old. When Felice died a few years later, Jasmine took over her mother's job as a maid. Ethel's father started raping Jasmine daily, and Ethel's mother sold Jasmine out all over the city. By then, Ethel had no concept of a friendship with Jasmine anymore. Ethel avoided Jasmine as she passed her on the street. (Whitehead 192) Without letting her feel the obligation to stand up for blacks as it gets awkward, Ethel's brand of compassion soothes her conscience. She follows her father's order after having a fit when he prohibits her from playing with Jasmine and starts treating her former friend like every other slave. In fact, She still assumes the leading position, even when she played make-believe with Jasmine when they were playing together. (Whitehead 191) Nonetheless, in an attitude of superiority, Ethel does these certain things, assuming she is somehow greater than a black person. Moreover, She is a hero being praised by African "savages" in her vision of herself as a missionary. Furthermore,  She is delighted when she reads the Bible to Cora that she now has "a savage to call her own at last" (Whitehead 196). Also, Since she realizes that doing so puts her at personal risk, she has no desire to support Cora as Whitehead states on page 194, "Slavery as a moral issue never interested Ethel. If God had not meant for Africans to be enslaved, they wouldn't be in chains. She did, however, have firm ideas about not getting killed for other people's high-minded ideas." The kindness of Ethel is limited to comfort restrictions. Ethel is positive and enthusiastic about Cora's existence at the end of Chapter Seven because it lets Ethel realize like it is serving her missionary calling. However, just a few hours later, before being stoned to death, Ethel would refuse any knowledge of Cora's life. This scene is full of dramatic irony. 

To sum up, in the novel "The Underground Railroad" Whitehead regulates the historical record in order to reflect on the narratives in history that are not necessarily taken into account in relation to the present time frame. Themes about historical myths and fantasy are taken from Whitehead as a means of manifesting the conjecture of the whites to build a home. The author includes the ideology so that Americans can stand up and take into account the tasks of injustice currently existing in the United States as well. Cora may be a fearsome defender of her abused rights, but she also knows that her oppressors, in specific ways, are "prisoners like she was, shackled to fear... America was a ghost in the darkness, like her." (Whitehead 179) Although Cora might never find liberty, but she's on the right track. 

Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert
<p>et, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet.</p> Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answer

    usce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aongue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio.

    piscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec faci

    • a. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisci
    • nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce du
    • fficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ul
    • sum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacini
    • e vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lo
    • ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lo
    • sque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapib



    molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, c


    itur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultr


    acinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fus

    facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor ne

    rem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna

    at, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae

    fficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus eff

    acinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec ali

    s a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur

    entesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lac

    iscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, conse


    ipsum do

    consectetu



    facilisis. Pellente