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  • The below test includes 10 questions, randomly selected from a large inventory. Most questions will be different each time you take the test, 
  • You must answer at least 9 out of 10 questions correctly to receive your Certificate.
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  • If the student version contains BOTH word-for-word and paraphrasing plagiarism, you should select word-for-word.
  • If you need help, see this document which provides criteria for determining plagiarism that are used in this test.
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Item 1 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

First, the potential of digital games is discussed using the tutor/tool/tutee framework proposed by Taylor (1980). Second, the potential of digital games to enhance learning by connecting game worlds and real worlds is stated. Third, the possibility of digital games to facilitate collaborative problem-solving is addressed. Fourth, the capability of digital games to provide an affective environment for science learning is suggested. Last, the potential of using digital games to promote science learning for younger students is indicated.

References:
Li, M. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-22.

 

There are five advantages of using games in science learning stated in the literature. Games can be used as tools; make connections between virtual worlds and the real world; promote collaborative problem solving; provide affective and safe environments; and encourage younger students for science learning. 


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 2 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Science classrooms offer at least five ways to individualize and to enhance students'learning using games and simulations beyond what is possible in informal settings. First, teachers can assign students to teams based on detailed knowledge of learners' intellectual and psychosocial characteristics. Second, in contrast to relatively unguided learning in contexts outside of school, science teachers can alter their classroom instruction and support based on the feedback educational games and simulations provide. Third, science games and simulations are adaptable to students with special needs, allowing them to be mainstreamed in science classrooms. Fourth, educational games and simulations can prepare students to take full advantage of real world field trips in science classrooms. Fifth, teachers through their knowledge of students can relate virtual experiences in science games and simulations to what is happening in the real world or in their personal lives.

References:
Dede, C. (2009). Learning context: Gaming, gaming simulations, and science learning in the classroom. Paper commissioned for the National Research Council Workshop on Gaming and Simulations, October 6-7, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/
bose/Dede_Gaming_CommissionedPaper. pdf 

According to Dede (2009), different games can be assigned and used based on students' characteristics. Information about student performance when playing games can help science teachers plan subsequent classroom activities. Games also can be utilized for students with special needs, which can be selected to match their ability levels. 


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 3 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else - perhaps the director of training - to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will "solve the problem." And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem....  The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When major changes are initiated in organizations, there is often the implicit assumption that training will 'solve the problem.'  And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

 


References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 4 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual.Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction. 

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

"The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction" (p. 29).


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Use of mainstream games in schools remains rare, and is unlikely to be integrated into the curriculum. Reasons for this include:

  • it is difficult for teachers to identify quickly how a particular game is relevant to some component of the statutory curriculum, as well as the accuracy and appropriateness of the content within the game
  • the difficulty in persuading other school stakeholders as to the potential/actual educational benefits of computer games 
  • the lack of time available to teachers to familiarize themselves with the game, and methods of producing the best results from its use
  • the amount of irrelevant content or functionality in a game which could not be removed or ignored, thus wasting valuable lesson time.

References:
Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning: A report forNESTA Futurelab. Retrieved from http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/19/04/53/PDF/kirriemuir-j-2004-r8.pdf

Kirriemuir and McFarlane (2004) reported that the use of mainstream games in K-12 education is and will probably remain rare for several reasons. Evaluating a game's relevance to curriculum and accuracy of content is difficult and time-consuming. They further assert that a mainstream game which is applicable to curriculum standards will likely include irrelevant content. Finally, most teachers are not familiar with methods for using mainstream games in instruction.

 

 

 

References:
Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning: A report forNESTA Futurelab. Retrieved from http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/19/04/53/PDF/kirriemuir-j-2004-r8.pdf


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 6 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The technological tools available today for creating computer-based learning materials are incredibly more powerful than those introduced just a few years ago. We can make our own movies with camcorders in our homes; we can publish our own books. Soon teachers and students will be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it takes is time, know-how, and some funds. 

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Frick (1991) claimed that computers would become so powerful that K-12 educators and students would able to produce their own multimedia and Web-based learning materials.  He further predicted that they would just need to take the time required to learn to use the authoring tools and related technologies such as digital cameras and camcorders.


References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 7 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Instructional designers typically employ models to guide their day-to-day work. Due to the increased practice of the systematic design of instruction in a growing number of settings, available models become more and more proliferated, focusing on particular types and contexts of learning, particular groups of learners or designers, or particular instructional units (either whole curricula or individual modules or lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes. 

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes (van Merriënboer, 1997, p. 2). Process models proliferate because more and more designers generate models that focus on specific contexts, learners, or even units of instruction, according to van Merriënboer. 

 

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Analysis of patterns in time (APT) is a method for gathering information about observable phenomena such that probabilities of temporal patterns of events can be estimated empirically. If appropriate sampling strategies are employed, temporal patterns can be predicted from APT results. Finally, APT is compared to the linear models approach and event history analysis. The major difference is that in APT there is no mathematical model assumed to characterize relations among variables. In APT the model is the temporal pattern being investigated. 

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

APT is an empirical approach to observing and coding phenomena by using mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories within multiple classifications (Frick, 1990). Once these data have been collected, researchers specify APT queries to calculate the probability of joint and/or sequential patterns of interest. In effect, researchers create measures of temporal patterns by counting the occurrences of these coded patterns. According to Frick, Analysis of Patterns in Time is different from the linear models approach of measuring variables separately and using statistics to analyze their relations.

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy.Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990).

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy.Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process. 

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories...." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)" (p. 27).



References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism


Answer & Explanation
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